List of Illustrations. Preliminary Statement by Iannis Xenakis. Dialogue with Olivier Messiaen. Dialogue with Michel Ragon. Dialogue with Michel Serres. II Sieve Theory. V Bibliography. This thesis file must then be defended before a jury whose members not necessarily academic personalities are suggested to the sponsoring university by the candidate.
Once all the members have been agreed upon, a five-hour deliberation session is held between the candidate and the jury.
L’étrange histoire de l’ordonnance de Villers-Cotterêts : force du passé, force des signes
At the end of this "defense," the jury decides whether the degree should be awarded, and if so, with what honors. The present volume is a translation of the defense of the material in my file which was recorded at the Sorbonne in I am very proud to have had the chance to debate the issues covered in this volume with this distinguished company. Many of these subjects have preoccupied me since my youth, and it was an honor to discuss them with the specialists on the jury, each of them being part of the French intellectual avant-garde in his domain.
I admire the perseverance, courage, and intelligence of the young composer Sharon Kanach, first for having translated this book and, second, for finding Pendragon Press, an American publishing house that was willing to bring out a work which guaranteed no particular commercial success. Through the innocence of her youth and her love for these same subjects, Sharon fought through the problems of publication, mostly on her own. Iannis Xenakis. In this translation, I have tried to render the written word as close to "speech" as possible while not betraying the grammatical logic behind the statements.
French and English verbal patterns differ greatly. A note of thanks is due first of all to Iannis Xenakis himself for initially suggesting this translation to me. His encouragement. A special note of thanks must also go to Robert Kessler. I would like to dedicate this translation to my parents.
Elizabeth and Walter Kanach. Sharon E. Jury members were:. The worlds of classical, contemporary, pop, folk traditional, avant-garde, etc. Not only do they present extraordinary deviations, rich in new creations, but also fossilizations, ruins, and wastes, all in continuous formations and transformations, much like clouds - so distinct yet so ephemeral.
This can be explained by the proposition that music is a sociocultural phenomenon; therefore, subordinate to a given moment in history. Yet we can distinguish the parts which are more invariable than others and which then form materials of hardness and consistency resulting from various epochs of civilization; materials which move in space, have been developed, put into use, and have followed the course of ideas, colliding one against the other, influencing and annihilating one another, mutually fecundating.
But what is the essence of these materials? Intelligence which searches, questions, infers, reveals, foresees - on all levels. Music and the arts in general seem to be a necessary solidification, materialization of this intelligence. Naturally, intelligence, although humanly universal, is diversified by the individual, by talent, which distinguishes one individual from others. Talent, then, is a kind of qualification, a grading of the vigor and richness of intelligence: for intelligence is, fundamentally, the result or expression of the billions of exchanges, reactions and energy transformations of the body and the brain cells.
Using the model of astrophysics, we could say that intelligence is the form which minimal acts take in cellular condensations and movements as it seems to be with solar, planetary and galactic movements, and in galactic constellations, born of or reduced to cold interstellar dust. However, this image is inverted at least on one level , for in condensation, this cold dust becomes hot. Therefore, colors, sounds and dimensions are condensations in our sensory-brain system. A brutal and perfectly superficial exterior aspect of this system is perceived and comprehended on the conscious level.
The periodic vibrations in the air and the electromagnetic field of light are inaccessible to the conscience but are magnificently well followed within limits, of course and converted by our senses and brain. Conversions, on the other hand, operate on several levels, from that of immediate perception to those of comparison, appreciation and judgment.
How, why is all of this produced? It is a mystery, elaborated as it is among the animals, and this has been so for millions and millions of years. There have been, at least in the Western world, stronger and stronger condensations: the perfect fourth and tetrachords, and perhaps even earlier, the perfect fifth whose origins remain unknown : then. Next came the evenly tempered chromatic scale, and finally, continuity in the ensemble of "pitches. It follows from this example that music is a strong condenser the strongest, perhaps, of all the arts.
This table shows one of the paths music has taken since its origin since Antiquity and to which it has kept with remarkable fidelity through millennia, marking a significant acceleration during the twentieth century. Consequently, it seems that a new type of musician is necessary, an "artist-conceptor" of new abstract and free forms, tending toward complexities, and then toward generalizations on several levels of sound organization. For example, a form, a construction, an organization based on Markov chains or on a complex of interrelated probablitiy functions can be simultaneously conveyed on several levels of musical micro-, meso-, and macro-composition.
We could even extend this concept to the visual domain, for example, in a spectacle involving laser rays and electronic flashes such as those of the Cluny Polytope. From here on nothing prevents us from foreseeing a new relationship between the arts and sciences, especially between the arts and mathematics: where the arts would consciously "set" problems which mathematics would then be obliged to solve through the invention of new theories.
The artist-conceptor will have to be knowledgeable and inventive in such varied domains as mathematics, logic, physics, chemistry, biology, genetics, paleontology for the evolution of forms , the human sciences and history: in short, a sort of universality, but one based upon, guided by and oriented toward forms and architectures. Moreover, the time has come to establish a new science of "general morphology" which would treat these forms and architectures within these diverse disciplines in their invariant aspects and the laws of their transformations which have, in some cases, existed for millions of years.
The backdrop for this new science should be the real condensations of intelligence: in other words, an abstract approach, free from anecdotes of our senses and habits. Let us now delve into the fundamental system on which art is based. Art has something in the nature of an inferential mechanism which constitutes the platforms on which all theories of the mathematical, physical and human sciences move about.
Indeed, games of proportion - reducible to number games and metrics in architecture, literature, music, painting, theatre, dance, etc. Situated next to this terrain and operating in reciprocal activity is the experimental mode which challenges or confirms theories created by the sciences, including mathematics. It is experimentation which makes or breaks theories, pitilessly and without any particular consideration for the theories themselves. Yet the arts are governed in a manner even richer and more complex by this experimental mode.
Certainly there is not nor will there ever be an objective criterion for determining absolute truth or eternal validity even within one work of art, just as no scientific "truth" is ever definitive. But in addition to these two modes-inferential and experimental-art exists in a third mode, one of immediate revelation, which is neither inferential nor experimental. The revelation of beauty occurs immediately, directly, to someone ignorant of art as well as to the connoisseur.
This is the strength of art and, so it seems, its superiority over the sciences.
Art, while living the two dimensions of inference and experimentation, possesses this third and most mysterious dimension which permits art objects to escape any aesthetic science while still enjoying the caresses of inference and experimentation. But on the other hand, art cannot live by the revelation mode alone.
Art history of all times and of all civilizations shows us that art has an imperious need of organization including that of chance ; therefore, a need for inference and its confirmation; hence, a need for its experimental truth. Actually there is no reason why art cannot, following the example of science, rise from the immensity of the cosmos; nor why art cannot, as a cosmic landscaper, modify the demeanor of the galaxies.
This may seem utopian, and in fact it is, but only temporarily when viewed in the context of the immensity of time. On the contrary, what is not utopian but possible today is to cast luminous spiderwebs of colored laser beams like a giant polytope over cities and countrysides: the use of clouds as reflector screens, the use of artificial satellites as reflecting mirrors so that these "webs" rise in space and surround the earth with their phantasmagorical, moving geometries: joining the earth and the moon by filaments of light. One could even willfully create artificial aurora boreales in the night skies whose movements, forms and colors would be controlled by electromagnetic fields aroused by lasers in the highest atmosphere.
But hedgehopping sound displacements in cities and over the countryside are already possible thanks to national networks of air raid alarm system speakers. It would suffice to merely refine them. Technologically speaking, these things are feasible today. In these planetary or cosmic artistic productions, it is apparent that the artist, and consequently art, must be simultaneously rational inferential , technical experimental and talented revelatory : three indispensable and coordinated modes which shun fatal failures, given the dimensions of these projects and the great risk of error.
This greater complexity of the fundamental system of the three modes which govern art leads to the conclusion that art is richer and vaster and must necessarily initiate condensations and coagulations of intelligence; therefore, serve as a universal guide to the other sciences. For more than twenty years now, I have strived like a mosaic artisan, unconsciously at first, then in a more conscious way, to fill this philosophical space with an intelligence which becomes real by the colored pebbles which are my musical, architectural and visual works and my writings.
These pebbles, at first very isolated, have found themselves brought together by bonds of relationships, of affinities, but also by opposition, gradually forming figures of local coherencies and then vaster fields summoning each other with questions and then the resulting answers. Mathematics plays an essential role here as a philosophical catalyst, as a molding tool for forming auditory or visual edifices, but also as a springboard toward self-liberation. Here I will outline only the fundamental questions and, in opposition to these, the answers given by the works I have created, I will not, in any case, go into detail nor explain the mazes of their elaboration.
Furthermore, several of these questions are interrelated and create intersections belonging to the same philosophical domain. For example: causality - determinism- continuity, indeterminism chance -- existentiality—determinism, etc. This is also why a work answer can in itself, respond to a whole group of questions. In addition, I will mention only a few works from the thesis file. What is remarkable to ascertain is that these questions can be found in all areas of musical or visual composition; in other words, from the general form macrocomposition down to computer-generated sound synthesis and numeric-analogical conversion microcomposition , but also passing by all the intermediary stages along the way.
I was saying that all the work I have done over the years is a sort of mosaic of hierarchical coherencies. Philosophy, but in what sense? In the sense of the philosophical impulse which pushes us toward truth, revelation, research, general quest. This leads us to an ensemble of knowledge which should be active, in the sense of "doing. I repeat, in all possible domains. Following the methods which I will examine presently, one can divide this coherency roster, mosaic, this table, into three categories or three chapters. The first is the method which allows us to obtain this active knowledge through creativity-which through theoretical demonstration implies inference, meaning reason, logic, etc.
Following these criteria, there are aspects of activity and knowledge which are partially inferential, entirely inferential and experimental, and others which remain unknown. The arts take part in inference. Consequently, we construct and tie things together in a reasoned manner and can demonstrate them up to a certain point. On the contrary, the human and natural sciences, physics, mathematics, and logic are experimental as well as entirely inferential. It is necessary to build a theory and to verify this theory by experimentation. In the artistic domain, we can partially build by inference, but experimentation is not immediate.
There is the problem of aesthetics and there is no possible demonstration of the aesthetic value of these things. I will leave the door open to any methods which have not yet been discovered. As a corollary to this artistic discrimination, it can be said that the arts are freer since the arts take part in the inferential operation as well as in the experimental one. It is perhaps ambitious to say it, but the arts could possibly guide other sectors of human thinking. Going down one rung in this hierarchy. Within these categories, there is existentiality ontology, reality , causality, contiguity or connectedness, compacity.
There is also determinism and its extreme pole, indeterminism. I am reaching back, in one way or another, to certain very important categories of thought which have been more or less consciously and systematically stated since Aristotle but which have drifted by the wayside or been claimed by experimental psychology Jean Piaget and certain branches of modern mathematics. These categories of thought-questions invite or could invite families of solutions and this is what I have endeavored to achieve musically. I hope I am being clear. What I am trying to say is that man has attempted to answer this multitude of questions by giving temporary answers from certain families of solutions, especially with regard to determinism.
Here I would like to open a parenthesis: causality. Something I neglected to state before is that it can even be ascertained that order and disorder are parts of indeterminism. Connectedness and continuity are other facets of the bi-pole of determinism-indeterminism.
Picking up where I left off before, solutions and procedures capable of giving answers to categories of fundamental questions are necessarily defined in a very schematic manner by a few sub-chapters, a few paragraphs. Probabilistic thinking - with its extreme limit which I will call free or memory-less stochastics on the one hand, and Markov chains which agree to a certain degree of causality, a certain elementary determinism which is upstream from this on the other hand-is one example.
Tyssot De Patot and His Work – | SpringerLink
But at the heart of probabilistic thinking and indeterminism, there is what can be called symmetry or periodicity, which is another way to define or to speak of these types of thinking. Symmetry or periodicity, meaning the cyclic return of events, procedures, etc. Between the two, there is what can be called the hybrid or mixed phase. One of the interesting forms in this phase is game theory. Lower, at the lowest threshold of the mosaic, in answer to these topics and ways of thinking which have also been established by other sciences, including music specific works can be found which are reflections on and tentative answers to these questions.
But I could say, for example, that the topic of free stochastics is treated in a piece such as "Achorripsis", which was later formulated by a machine program, a program which represents a free stochastic system. By the way, this same program has been in use for the past few years in the United States as well as in Europe Sweden, France, etc. In the realm of Markovian stochastics, there are pieces such as Analogiques and Syrmos for strings. In game theory: Strategic, Linaia-Agon, etc.
I am mentioning only the principal works. In the report I submitted to the jury, and at the beginning of my statement, a few more details can be found which concern my visual works such as the Polytopes and my architectural works. By continuing in this manner down to the very bottom of the hierarchy, one finds the pressure-time space of sound. Analogous things could be said about the visual realm, meaning that from the questions asked on the microstructural level that is to say, from the level of the next higher element , macrostructures can be seen as resolved or as being treated by procedures and thoughts equivalent on the primordial level.
At this primordial level, we find pressure in function with time for the ear and in function with electromagnetic actions for the eye in the visible spectrum. I believe I have given you a very general outline of the binding thread throughout my work, without speaking of the work itself. Thank you very much, Iannis Xenakis. It is certain that your statement was brief and could seem complex since it is so dense.
I hope that the discussion which will now get under way will throw some light upon your presentation. It is quite unambiguous for those who already know your work well. But your presentation may seem a bit vague to others, precisely because too many subjects were broached simultaneously. Indeed, because of some administrative peculiarity, I am the thesis advisor.
He managed that well. I am also the chairman of the jury for this defense. Faced with such a considerable mass of research and works, this chairman feels pretty insignificant. Xenakis has chosen a title to present his fundamental theoretical works and, in support of these theoretical works, a certain number of documents which are the musical scores of some of the works he just referred to, plus architectural sketches, designs, schemas, abstracts, etc. Xenakis introduces a few of these alloys, and has just told us, in a very dense manner, how we can gain insight into these.
- Iannis Xenakis: Kunstide ja teaduste sulam FR_EN_EE;
- Prometheus Fading!
- Nanoscale Liquid Interfaces: Wetting, Patterning and Force Microscopy at the Molecular Scale?
- Petit traité dhistoire des religions (French Edition).
This man has a certain attitude before the World, a certain vision of the world, and he feels the permanent and haunting obsession that there is always something to do. For nearly twenty years, I have never seen him other than as prey to a Sort of creative demon. For him, science is something which always accompanies this creative demon. Xenakis wants to do something, but not just anything.
He always wants to compose a determined work, a work which, on a certain level precisely on the aesthetic level communicates itself: you go to a concert, you hear a piece by Xenakis: but the work, on another level. In books such as those he presents today: Musique. Xenakis says why he wanted to do this and how he did it. They are architectural and musical works, the polytopes, but also included is the theoretical work we have before our eves I would now like to invite those more competent than myself the carefully reflect on art and science and to ask Xenakis questions concerning the "alloys.
The first question will be as follows: Xenakis proposes in his theoretical works to fight against the current separation between the arts and the sciences and to create a sort of free movement of thought: hence a mutually fecundating of scientific and artistic thought. To achieve this, Xenakis relies simultaneously on a vision of the past and on his current realizations. Little by little. The best periods of mutual fecundating between the arts and the sciences have been during Greek Antiquity, the Italian Renaissance, the classic age, etc.
But today, the benefits which the arts and sciences could share seem to me to be quite unequally divided and possible. For example, the application of stochastic calculations to music. But from a purely mathematical point of view, I fear that these tools neither present any particular interest nor fecundity nor invention nor difficulty to sunnount, and, by consequence, there is no new realization to be made.
Likewise, the use of computers has certainly posed problems, but entirely classical problems in tenns of programming and information theory. In short, pro blems which have been mastered perfectly enough. This is not at all apparent in the other direction. There are well-ordered groups; therefore, perhaps there are groups that are not orderly. We understand very well how musical thought can thereby be fertilized by mathematics, but given the relatively elementary level of mathematics in these concepts, I would say that the interest is null for mathematics.
If one can dream of an exchange between the arts and the sciences, it would consequently be necessary to declare that, in our day and age, the terms of exchange seem extremely unequal. Hence my question: How can we hope to interest the scholars and scientists and thereby perceive these new mental structures which Xenakis himself alludes to today? Is this lack of balance bad? And if yes, how can we overcome this? My second question is simply derived from the first.
An alloy is a utopian thing, meaning that it is a creative invention. But can it pretend to apply to the whole of society? Can it pretend to become if not the sole law, at least one of the elements in the relationship between art and science? Would the proposition of "alloys," assuming science to be on one side and art on the other, have something which resembles a meaning-unto-itself, a sort of truth-in-itself; or, with art on its own side and science on its own side, could they not be vehicles of something other than themselves?
Would they stem from somewhere else, a somewhere which would be elsewhere than in the axiomatics to which we enjoy referring them? In other words, is there a purely technical union between the arts and sciences, or is there a social division after all which would be hiding behind this technical division and if so which? Indeed, who would be who and who would not? Here we are faced with a division, a separation between functions. Science is turned toward so-called rational action, toward nature and man; it prides itself on being part of reality.
Art is turned toward the creative invention of imaginary objects. Is Xenakis proposing something imminently realizable or something which presupposes transformations-notably social ones which are much more radical-by partially changing both science and art, in having them confront one another?
In summary, the sciences have given men a certain control over things. Xenakis now proposes, in some way, to control this control so that this higher control could help man rather than use him. The third question will come back to aesthetics. This opinion is but one of the aspects of the well-known scientific and technocratic ideology in society. When we look more carefully we can see that this obviously has no meaning. In Formalized Music we can find an admirable formula: "In this domain we find that computers render certain services. We have here then months of hard work: If possible, we would use a machine which could work much faster and more efficiently.
Perhaps Xenakis can tell us why? If I cannot successfully analyze Enyali, obviously I must first examine my own limitations. But nevertheless, must something else be blamed? Xenakis speaks very little of style, though he arranged to comper computers to respect this notion which the profane can recognize only while listening. Xenakis barely touches upon the subject in his theoretical writings. Is this out of a sense of decency? Out of modesty? Sometimes, an allusion, a short sentence will emerge concerning the beauty of this or that device, of this or that result, on the absurdity or the baseness of what Xenakis somewhere calls "the lowest strata of musical intelligence.
Iannis, you speak too little about this xenakian style. You can respond by saying that you leave that up to your historiographers. They thank you for your trust in them. They certainly thank you less for your silence! If you could help them just a little bit, they would be even more grateful. The techniques, however, do not subjugate themselves to the alloys.
In short, what presides over all of that. Perhaps here we are venturing beyond the limits of your thesis. How is it that Xenakis convinces himself and us about this wonderful power of knowledge, a power which I myself believe in up to a certain point , while in the meantime; he writes his most brilliant works simply with a pencil and paper? If you please, Iannis, where in this realm have things changed so totally and profoundly since Bach or Mozart, for example? The last question is a very important one, in my mind.
The answer is that I have sometimes been accused of being calculating, of being a mathematician, of being "dry," and all these in opposition to being a musician. This accusation is now out of date. Today it seems that I am no longer subject to it. Even musicians consider me a musician! This is a parenthesis I would like to open. For the first time, I find myself in an institution as "respectable" as the Universite de Paris and even the Sorbonne.
On the other hand, the part which cannot be expressed, can be said only by art itself, by music itself or by the architecture or visual expressions themselves. What can be said? There is no language which could encompass these questions aside from the questions themselves which deal with construction, structures, rules and laws.
But I agree with you: there is something else in music, in any music, even in the "ugliest" music. But this "something" is neither distinguishable nor discernible; it is "unspeakable. It is the art-object which must express them. What do you mean, "clever"? I can do that! I can speak of structures. For example, you said that I calculate either with computers or "by hand," but amidst all that there is still a style which comes through, independent of these calculations or any "metacalculation.
Or "infra. I could even generalize here. There is no man-made construction which is not arbitrary in some way.
In mathematics we encounter this when modern as well as ancient mathematics arbitrarily sets axioms and then, only at a secondary stage, uses formalistic logic and thereby builds their entire structures. The group of axioms is set at the base or at the summit, in my mind, since the base is inversed. The point is on the ground and the base is in the sky since there is more room for it to grow there.
That which is axiomatic infers an arbitrary choice. But is it completely arbitrary? Yes, but after first separating certain theoretical necessities added to the conditionings of actual and historical experience. Nevertheless, there is a parallel which you yourself make. A parallel is drawn between the history of mathematical thinking and the history of musical forms, plus practically a third element. Just as the fugue is a musical structure of the fugal period, so are your works typical of the twentieth century.
But of course there is Xenakis the individual, and it seems to me that this totality is not arbitrary. If the fugue was, in fact, fundamental at a given moment, it was certainly not so before its discovery, before it imposed itself! The fugue is by no means fundamental today. Therefore, this is first and foremost a technical problem, since what is, after all, a fugue?
This group of rules was born. Consequently, it did not exist before that! And now it no longer exists in the broad sense, from the point of view of creative invention. This rather convincingly proves its at-least-partially arbitrary character. The question was not about fugues but about your work, Iannis! If I try to explain my ideas in books and articles or in lectures on this or that technique, it is because I can easily speak of these things. Therefore, eventually, I have the students listen and see the results. There you have a quick summary of my answer. Yes, perhaps For instance.
Antiquity had also witnessed this free movement between the arts and sciences. We see Polycletes trying to apply geometry to sculpture with his canon; this same free movement which similarly occurred in architecture, painting and music. Man is something unique, singular. There are not many men, there is but one. This man encompasses all thinking and acting possibilities.
On the other hand, the arts too have contributed to scientific thought in a direct or indirect manner at certain crucial moments in history. This is what I have tried to show in the table which I added to the last chapter of Musique. However, I can say that the eye is quicker, much more immediate and in direct contact with reality.
It is with this type of idea that I have tried to show the tendril between music theory and hence. I was already struck by the poverty of "combinatory" thought in music before leaving the Athens Poly technical School where I studied compositional procedures. This is also true for serial music which I later studied.
Here, I would like to pay tribute to Olivier Messiaen. He was the only one whose thinking was completely open to these topics, Some of his work rested on the premise of "interventions. But this is entirely another facet which does not belong to structural ones. These were the beginning of my work on scales. Over fifteen years ago, I came upon these scale problems in musical composition. In the course of my work, I was led to resolve them with the help of almost-already-made mathematics.
The result was my "Sieve theory. Compared to what mathematics offers the artist today, this is really nothing; it is minimal. What must be done then? This training must not occur too late. It should start in grammar school, if not in nursery school. This results in a delay since there is no communication at all. In any case, the consequent lack of free movement and contact makes itself deeply felt. Moreover, this is why I have agreed to teach, to give lectures and seminars. Also, now at CEMAMu, we are making an effort to utilize the most advanced technology known to information theory in pedagogic directions.
By combining problems of musical composition and thinking with those of space and vision and finally with those of mathematics which the child necessarily learns when five, six. I think the core of the problem lies here. Therefore, this differentiation is a residue of recent history. Little by little, the artist has strayed and has made a sort of selection. He has examined only one of the aspects of art: precisely, the inexpressible aspect. I believe that Michel Serres would like to intervene on certain points. He poses the problem of exchanges between the sciences and arts.
The scientific world has changed and no one has become aware of this, perhaps not even the scientists. What has changed is not that combinatory algebra has been replaced by group theory nor that Fourier transformations have been replaced by information theory. That is not important. What is important is that something called a "paradigm" has been completely transformed.
A new world, a new scientific world has emerged in the second half of the twentieth century. The first to have stated this was not a philosopher, not a scientist, not an epistomologist, but Xenakis. To say that there is a delay has no meaning unless the problem is posed on local exchanges. If it is the global vision which is thrown into question, it can be found with Xenakis. All the traditional discourses hide this general vision of science and this paradigm from us. No, Xenakis, you are one step ahead and thank you for being there.
About this book
I never doubted that. My initial question was what could music for example bring not only to scholar-scientists, but to science itself. Finally we are left with the problem of the social conditions of the "alloy" in question. Fine, thank you very much; that answers the first question laughs. This particular problem has remained absent from all the social transformations which are produced in the entire world.
No one has answered this problem and I think I will come back to what I said earlier: the desired social transformation would be the one which would tackle the coexistence and interpenetration of these aspects of human life from the earliest education onward. Speaking of pedagogy, it seems clear to me that neither innocently nor by chance, pedagogy, such as it is practiced in our society, creates literati on the one hand, and on the other hand, scientists.
But I believe that we can go beyond this stage. I myself have worked in at least two professions simultaneously. In my opinion these illnesses can be cured. How can we attain this radical pedagogical and also socio-environmental change? This is a reform which politics should be undertaking instead of merely asking questions about salaries, technical stuff, improvements, social progress.
I think that art as well as science has its role to play in putting everything together. What Michel Serres said is true: at the basis of art and equally of science , there is this whole vision which can be called the vision of the twentieth century, which is a totality and which is hope, and finally which should be the hope of humanity.
Well, perhaps now we should give Olivier Messiaen the floor, since we have covered the first cycle of questions and answers. A hero cannot be criticized! Therefore, I will ask only a few questions. If they displease you, say so. These are not really questions, but more like requests for elucidations to enable you to clarify your thoughts. Instead of making a brilliant statement like my colleagues, I will simply ask you my questions one after the other. This will be easier for you, for me, for everyone. First question: somewhere in your thesis and also at several places in your book Musique.
Architecture, you seem to lead history, and especially the beginnings of music, back to the birth of scales and modes, and scale-constructs. Before these scales and you yourself recognize this only tetrachords were utilized. Shouts of joy and shrieks of pain: this is exclamatory language spoken as well as musical.
Then, the perception and imitation of other sounds, of the wind, of water, bird songs, etc. Syntactical spoken languages came much later as did organized musical phrases, and with these, preliminary, "outside-time" as you call it scales, modes, and scale-constructs. Why have you stopped at this scale material, to the exclusion of all the rest? No, not at all. Would you like me to speak of this right away? It is true that I did not go any further, perhaps out of ignorance. We have no way of knowing the form of his thinking. If I look upon past centuries from this present century, it is because I belong to this century and consequently can only speak of things which are comprehensible to me.
Furthermore, what does it mean "to imitate"; what does it mean "to exclaim," which came before syntax, before all rules, before constructions. This is already an indication of a recognition of form, therefore of a structural vision of the environment, admitting that man was sort of an object-unto-himself. Nature and his environment were something outside of him and what he perceived through his senses was consequently imitated.
Here also I think it probably can be said that his being capable of imitating the sound of the wind, hail or thunder, etc. Science today and when I say science, I mean scientific thinking , has merely glimpsed over certain mental structures of man for only a very little time. This is why I started with tetrachords, which are already at a rather advanced stage of construction.
I must also add that tetrachords are part of a cultural, scientific or organizational approach, meaning a material. For example: in No music, there is the interval of a fourth. We could say that the fourth is a sort of universal reality, but the interior construction of the fourth is something perhaps specific to the third or fourth century before the Christian era in the Greek world. Since tetrachords were at the base of the diatonic system, and hence of all music up until our present epoch, they can be viewed as the historical and musicological guiding line which enables us to extrapolate further.
This is not so true for earlier periods which I call pre-logical, even though they are not at all pre-logical in the musical realm. And what you tell us is fundamental because even if we want to dig more deeply into these questions of structures today, it would be necessary to come back to, or, more precisely, distance ourselves from these same structures, from these musical concepts, which, besides, would now tend toward extra-musical reasoning. This is the recognition of forms.
Tyssot De Patot and His Work 1655 – 1738
If we received and in fact, we do receive signals from intrastellar, galactic space, well, it would be necessary to know how to distinguish these from noise as Michel Serres said earlier , to see if they are structured, if they are coherent, and if this coherency is meaningful or not. Ryan Kernoa est le guitariste du groupe de rock noise Kourgane. Il est le compagnon et le partenaire de la saxophoniste Christine Abdelnour au sein de Split Second. Notre corps utopique. En , il entame un cycle sur les grandes figures de la culture populaire : Norman Bates est-il?
Martin-Barbaz, Les Vagues de V. Brecht sous la direction de F. Il travaille aussi en collaboration avec de jeunes auteurs dont Julie Aminthe, M. Il est boursier du C. T en pour La robe bleue. Romance , en , et Confusions de genres , en Il poursuit durant trois ans cette formation au Conservatoire Darius Milhaud. Publication dans de nombreuses revues. Dessins sans regarder.
Improvisations au dictaphone, au microphone, dans sa voiture, dans certains TGV. Quelques cris le long des deux voies. Petites chansons dans les carnets. Petrol est un auteur collectif. Petrol prend notre place. Au contraire. Chacun laissait ses textes aux autres auteurs. In , she is laureate of the Cross Channel Theatre. She performs and directs her last play, Poings , together with a circus-maker and a composer for. Her texts are published by the Solitaires Intempestifs.
Samuel Pivo vit et travaille principalement entre Paris, Lyon et Toulouse. Ma Route est traduite en chinois. Elle y travaille sous la direction de Stuart Seide. L en octobre Benedetti, S. Rappeneau, V. Vellard, M. Marfaing, C. Zimina, S. Druet, J. Schwartz, I Gontcharov, N. Gogol, O. Moukhina, E Mouravitsky, H. Haneke, T. Benisti, D. Duval, J. Birkin, N. Jahan, J. Koonen, R. Bouchareb, C. Le Piccolo Teatro de Milan produit, en , Blondi. Un extrait de Respire! Depuis , elle accompagne les projets de Ludovic Lagarde. Les Petits matins. Cette proposition poursuit ses recherches sur les conditions de perception et les variations entre voir et percevoir.
Dormeurs, dormeuses, Halle Roublot, Fontenay sous bois. Production ARTE. Festival Cannes Festival de Locarno. English Choose a language for shopping. Length: pages. Enhanced Typesetting: Enabled. Page Flip: Enabled. Language: French. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Amazon Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers.
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